Korean computer made 3.0 inch-77mm
AIR COMBAT COMMAND
Lineage. Established as Tactical Air Command, and activated as a major command, on 21 Mar 1946. Reduced from major command status, and assigned to Continental Air Command as an operational command, on 1 Dec 1948. Returned to major command status on 1 Dec 1950. Inactivated on 1 Jun 1992. Consolidated (26 Sep 2016) with Air Combat Command, which was established, and activated on 1 Jun 1992.
Assignments. Army Air Forces, 21 Mar 1946; United States Air Force, 26 Sep 1947; Continental Air Command, 1 Dec 1948; Headquarters, United States Air Force, 1 Dec 1950-.
Major Components. Air Forces: First Air Force (later, First Air Force [ANG]; First Air Force [Air Forces Northern]): 6 Dec 1985-. Second Air Force: 1 Jun 1992-1 Jul 1993. Third Air Force, 21 mar-1 Nov 1946. Eighth Air Force (later, Eighth Air Force [Air Forces Strategic]): 1 Jun 1992-1 Feb 2010. Ninth Air Force (later, Ninth Air Force [Air Forces Central]; United States Air Forces Central Command): 28 Mar 1946-1 Dec 1948; 1 Dec 1950-4 Aug 2009. Ninth [#2] Air Force: 5 Aug 2009-. Twelfth Air Force (later, Twelfth Air Force [Air Forces Southern]): 17 May 1946-1 Dec 1948; 1 Jan 1958-. Eighteenth Air Force, 28 Mar 1951-1 Jan 1958. Nineteenth Air Force, 8 Jul 1955-2 Jul 1973. Twentieth Air Force: 1 Jun 1992-1 Jul 1993.
Centers: Air & Space Expeditionary Force: 1 Oct 2002-29 Aug 2006. Aerospace Command and Control & Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (later, Air Force Command and Control & Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance; Global Cyberspace Integration; Air Force Command and Control Integration): 1 Aug 1997-30 Apr 2002; 15 Jun 2010-. Air Force Contingency Supply Support Office (later, Air Force Contingency Supply Squadron; ACC Regional Supply Squadron; Combat Air Forces Logistics Support Center): 12 Jun 1992-1 Jul 1994; 1 Dec 1998-1 Apr 2008. Air Warfare (later, USAF Warfare): 1 Jun 1992-. Air Combat Command Acquisition Management Integration: 16 Sep 1999-. Air Force Command and Control Integration: 15 Jun 2010-. USAF Special Air Warfare Center (later, USAF Special Operations Force), 19 Apr 1962-1 Jul 1974. USAF Tactical Air Reconnaissance: 1 Feb 1963-30 Jun 1971.
Agencies: Air and Space Command and Control (later, Aerospace Command and Control; Aerospace Command and Control & Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Center; Air Force Command and Control & Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Center; Air Force Command and Control Integration Center): 1 Aug 1997-30 Apr 2002; 15 Jun 2010-. Air Intelligence (later, Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Agency; Twenty-Fifth Air Force): 1 Feb 2001-8 Jun 2007; 29 Sep 2014-.
Groups: 1912 Computer Systems (later, Air Combat Command Computer Systems Squadron; Air Combat Command Communications Group; Air Combat Command Communications Support Squadron): 1 Jun 1992-. Air Combat Command (ACC) Logistics Support Group: 1 Jul 1994-16 Sep 1999.
Squadrons: Air Combat Command Air Operations Squadron: 1 Jun 1994-. 4444 Operations (later, Air Combat Command Training Support): 1 Jun 1992-. Air Combat Command Communications Support Squadron: 30 Nov 1990-. Air Combat Command Intelligence (later, Air Combat Command Combat Targeting and Intelligence Group; Air Force Targeting Center), 22 Apr 1996-17 Feb 2015.
Band: 564 Army Air Forces Band (later, 564 Air Force Band; 564 Tactical Air Command Band; Tactical Air Command Band; Air Combat Command Heritage of America Band; United States Air Force Heritage of America Band): 21-27 Mar 1946; c. 29 Jun 1946-16 Feb 1949; c. 1 Aug 1950-21 Mar 1960; 1 Jul 1970-.
Stations. Tampa, FL, 21 Mar 1946; Langley Field (later, Langley AFB, JB Langley-Eustis), VA, 27 May 1946-.
Operations. During its first years, the command’s missions included interdiction, close air support, tactical reconnaissance, and troop carrier support for Army airborne forces. On 1 Dec 1948, Tactical Air Command (TAC) served as a subordinate command of Continental Air Command, but returned to major command status two years later, on 1 Dec 1950. After 1 Dec 1950, TAC organized, trained, and equipped forces to perform tactical air operations including counter-air, air interdiction, close air support, tactical air control, electronic warfare, and special operations. Troop carrier operations remained a TAC mission until Dec 1974, when tactical airlift transferred to Military Airlift Command. In Oct 1979, when Aerospace Defense Command was inactivated, TAC assumed the national air defense mission, in addition to its other missions. In 1983, TAC’s special operations mission was transferred to Military Airlift Command’s Twenty-Third Air Force, which later became Air Force Special Operations Command. In carrying out its mission, TAC participated with the U.S. Army, the U.S. Navy, and the U.S. Marine Corps in developing doctrine, procedures, tactics, techniques, training and equipment for joint operations. TAC provided combat-ready USAF units to joint commands of the Department of Defense. Consolidated in 2016 with Air Combat Command which HQ USAF established to integrate most of the combat resources of Strategic Air Command with Tactical Air Command units into a single command, able to support and implement joint missions. ACC assumed control of all fighter resources based in the continental United States (CONUS), as well as all bombers, reconnaissance platforms, battle management resources, and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). Additionally, some tankers and C-130s were assigned to ACC, primarily to its composite and reconnaissance wings. The Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) mission transferred to the command from Air Mobility Command (AMC) in Feb 1993. In another mission change, ACC transferred responsibility for the operational control of the ICBMs to the Air Force Space Command and F-15 and F-16 flying training resources to the Air Education and Training Command (AETC) in Jul 1993. Later in Oct 1993, CONUS C-130 airlift forces transferred into ACC while the command’s tanker resources transferred to AMC. The C-130 forces returned to AMC in Apr 1997. The CSAR mission transferred to Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) in Oct 2003 only to return to ACC in Apr 2006. Air Combat Command also served as the Air Force component of the United States Atlantic Command (later, United States Joint Forces Command).
Service Streamers. None.
Campaign Streamers. None.
Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers. Grenada.
Decorations. Air Force Organizational Excellence Awards: 1 Jun 1984-31 May 1986; 1 Jun 1986-31 May 1988; 1 Jun 1988-31 May 1990; 1 Jun 1990-31 May 1992. 1 Sep 1992-31 Aug 1994; 1 Jun 1994-31 May 1996; 1 Jun 1996-31 May 1998; 1 Jun 1998-31 May 2000; 1 Jun 2000-31 May 2002; 1 Jun 2002-31 May 2004; 1 Jun 2004-31 May 2006; 1 Jan 2009-31 Dec 2010.
Emblem. Approved on 6 Nov 1952. Newest rendition approved on 16 Sep 2011.
Carrying the largest payload of both guided and unguided weapons in the Air Force inventory, the multi-mission B-1 is the backbone of America’s long-range bomber force. It can rapidly deliver massive quantities of precision and non-precision weapons against any adversary, anywhere in the world, at any time.
The B-1B’s blended wing/body configuration, variable-geometry wings and turbofan afterburning engines, combine to provide long range, maneuverability and high speed while enhancing survivability. Forward wing settings are used for takeoff, landings, air refueling and in some high-altitude weapons employment scenarios. Aft wing sweep settings – the main combat configuration — are typically used during high subsonic and supersonic flight, enhancing the B-1B’s maneuverability in the low- and high-altitude regimes. The B-1B’s speed and superior handling characteristics allow it to seamlessly integrate in mixed force packages. These capabilities, when combined with its substantial payload, excellent radar targeting system, long loiter time and survivability, make the B-1B a key element of any joint/composite strike force. The B-1 weapon system is capable of creating a multitude of far-reaching effects across the battlefield.
The B-1 is a highly versatile, multi-mission weapon system. The B-1B’s offensive avionics system includes high-resolution synthetic aperture radar, capable of tracking, targeting and engaging moving vehicles as well as self-targeting and terrain-following modes. In addition, an extremely accurate Global Positioning System-aided Inertial Navigation System enable aircrews to autonomously navigate globally, without the aid of ground-based navigation aids as well as engage targets with a high level of precision. The recent addition of Combat Track II radios permit an interim secure beyond line of sight reach back connectivity until Link-16 is integrated on the aircraft. In a time sensitive targeting environment, the aircrew can receive targeting data from the Combined Air Operations Center over CT II, then update mission data in the offensive avionics system to strike emerging targets rapidly and efficiently. This capability was effectively demonstrated during operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.
The B-1B’s self-protection electronic jamming equipment, radar warning receiver (ALQ-161) and expendable countermeasures (chaff and flare) system complements its low-radar cross-section to form an integrated, robust onboard defense system that supports penetration of hostile airspace. The ALQ-161 electronic countermeasures system detects and identifies the full spectrum of adversary threat emitters then applies the appropriate jamming technique either automatically or through operator manual inputs. Chaff and flares are employed against radar and infrared threat systems.
B-1 capabilities are being enhanced through the completion of the Conventional Mission Upgrade Program. This program has already improved lethality by adding the ability to carry up to 30 cluster munitions (CBU-87, -89, -97), a Global Positioning System receiver, an improved weapons interface that allows the carriage of Joint Direct Attack Munitions guided weapons and advanced secure radios (ARC-210). Survivability is enhanced through the addition of the ALE-50 Towed Decoy System which decoys advanced radar guided surface-to-air and air-to-air missile systems.
The CMUP adds improved avionics computers which allow the employment of additional advanced guided precision and non-precision weapons: 30 Wind-Corrected Munitions Dispensers (CBU-103, -104, -105 WCMD), 12 AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapons or 24 AGM-158 Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile. The B-1 will be able to carry and employ any mix of these weapons (a different type of weapon in each of the three weapons bays). The B-1 will also be the first platform to carry the extended range version of the JASSM. These modifications significantly increase B-1 combat capability.
Future planned modifications build on this foundation provided by the new avionics computers. Radar sustainability and capability upgrades will provide a more reliable system in addition to an ultra high-resolution capability that may include automatic target recognition features. The addition of Link-16 will allow the B-1 to operate in the integrated battlefield of the future. Cockpit modifications will relieve reliability problems and increase aircrew situational awareness and provide an integrated flow of information.
The B-1A was initially developed in the 1970s as a replacement for the B-52. Four prototypes of this long-range, high speed (Mach 2.2) strategic bomber were developed and tested in the mid-1970s, but the program was canceled in 1977 before going into production. Flight testing continued through 1981.
The B-1B is an improved variant initiated by the Reagan administration in 1981. Major changes included the addition of additional structure to increase payload by 74,000 pounds, an improved radar and reduction of the radar cross section by an order of magnitude. The inlet was extensively modified as part of this RCS reduction, necessitating a reduction in maximum speed to Mach 1.2.
The first production B-1 flew in October 1984, and the first B-1B was delivered to Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, in June 1985. Initial operational capability was achieved on Oct. 1, 1986. The final B-1B was delivered May 2, 1988.
The B-1B holds almost 50 world records for speed, payload, range, and time of climb in its class. The National Aeronautic Association recognized the B-1B for completing one of the 10 most memorable record flights for 1994. The most recent records were made official in 2004.
The B-1B was first used in combat in support of operations against Iraq during Operation Desert Fox in December 1998. In 1999, six B-1s were used in Operation Allied Force, delivering more than 20 percent of the total ordnance while flying less than 2 percent of the combat sorties. Eight B-1s were deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. B-1s dropped nearly 40 percent of the total tonnage during the first six months of OEF. This included nearly 3,900 JDAMs, or 67 percent of the total. All of this was accomplished while maintaining an impressive 79 percent mission capable rate.
Primary Function: Long-range, multi-role, heavy bomber
Contractor: Boeing, North America (formerly Rockwell International, North American Aircraft); Offensive avionics, Boeing Military Airplane; defensive avionics, EDO Corporation
Power plant: Four General Electric F101-GE-102 turbofan engine with afterburner
Thrust: 30,000-plus pounds with afterburner, per engine
Wingspan: 137 feet (41.8 meters) extended forward, 79 feet (24.1 meters) swept aft
Length: 146 feet (44.5 meters)
Height: 34 feet (10.4 meters)
Weight: approximately 190,000 pounds (86,183 kilograms)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 477,000 pounds (216,634 kilograms)
Fuel Capacity: 265,274 pounds (120,326 kilograms)
Payload: 75,000 pounds ( 34,019 kilograms)
Speed: 900-plus mph (Mach 1.2 at sea level)
Ceiling: More than 30,000 feet (9,144 meters)
Armament: 84 500-pound Mk-82 or 24 2,000-pound Mk-84 general purpose bombs; up to 84 500-pound Mk-62 or 8 2,000-pound Mk-65 Quick Strike naval mines; 30 cluster munitions (CBU-87, -89, -97) or 30 Wind-Corrected Munitions Dispensers (CBU-103, -104, -105); up to 24 2,000-pound GBU-31 or 15 500-pound GBU-38 Joint Direct Attack Munitions; up to 24 AGM-158A Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missiles
Crew: Four (aircraft commander, copilot, and two weapon systems officers)
Unit Cost: $283.1 million (fiscal 98 constant dollars)
Initial operating capability: October 1986
Inventory: Active force, 66 (test, 2); ANG, 0; Reserve, 0